Use of integrated circuits (IC) started the third generation of computer. IC reduced the size, price, use of electricity etc. IC also facilitates speed and reliability of computers. Development of IC enabled organizing the whole central processing unit in single chip. Use of monitor also started in this generation. Operating system was improved to a new level and high speed line printers were in use. Followings are some of the characteristics of third generation.
Computers from fourth generation are in use of everyday work. Fifth generation computers are from the future. Actually the computers from fifth generation are already in use under limited exposure and not available for everyone to try as the development process is still ongoing. A few of the characteristics of those fifth generation computers are already in practice or available in the fourth generation computers but those are either not complete nor available for everyone. Following are some of the characteristics of fifth generation computers.
The computers that we use now-a-days are the computers from fourth generation. From this generation more use of semi-conductors in memory started. Microprocessors has been created with LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The size and price of computers has both been reduced to significant levels. Followings are some of the characteristics of computers from fourth generation.
In 1947 transistors were invented, which was used in second generation computers to reduce the heat and size problem of the computers from first generation along with following characteristics
Vacuum tubes were used to build computers of first generation. These computers were so large in size because of using thousands of diode, triode, transistors, capacitors etc. and also used to use a lot of electricity. These computers of first generation used to produce a lot of heat, so those were more expensive to support by setting up cooling systems. Maintenance of these huge sized computers were complex and expensive. Following are some of the characteristics of the computers of first generation.
Data communication systems enable transfer of data using one of the three transmission modes. Data communication systems has 4 fundamental characteristics; which are delivery, accuracy, timeliness and jitter.