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What do you mean by phase angle and epoch?

Phase angle

Phase angle is defines as the fraction of the time interval that has lapsed since the particle has crossed the mean position of rest in the positive direction. It is also equal to the angle swept by the radius vector since the vibrating particle last crossed its mean position of rest.

For a particle vibrating simple harmonically, the displacement is

Here,  or ()  is the phase angle.


The initial phase angle when t=0 , is called the epoch. Thus α is called the epoch in the given equation of displacement.
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