Data communication systems enable transfer of data using one of the three transmission modes. Data communication systems has 4 fundamental characteristics; which are delivery, accuracy, timeliness and jitter. Each of these 4 fundamental characteristics has it part in the effectiveness of a data communication system. However, data communication systems work through network systems and there are 3 necessary criteria for an effective and efficient network. Thus a data communication system also depend on the underlying network system’s effectiveness.
The primary task of a data communication system is to deliver or transfer data from sender to receiver, which are the 2 components of the 5 components of data communication system. The system must deliver data to the exact destination. No other receiver should receive the data. This characteristics includes the security of the system, that is, the protection of data.
The data communication system must deliver data to the receiver without being altered or damaged. The receiver should receive the exact same data which was sent by the sender. The protocol might require to alter the sent data to protect and optimize the process. However, the protocol should also reverse and restore the data back to its original form before representing it to the receiver. The accuracy must be maintained.
The system must maintain timeliness. It must deliver data in a timely manner. Delayed delivery can make the data useless to the receiver. Data must be delivered as they are produced, in the order they are produced and without any significant delay.
Jitter refers to the variation of packet arrival time. Data is sent as packets, that is, a chunk of the whole data is sent in each turn. These packets get re-joined back in the target device to represent the complete data as it is. Each packet is sent with a predefined delay or acceptable amount of delay. If packets are sent without maintaining the predefined delay then an uneven quality in the data might result.