General Properties of Nucleus:
(i) Nuclear Size:
From Rutherford’s work, the mean radius of nucleus is and the radius of the atom is . Thus the radius of the nucleus is 10,000 times smaller than the radius of the atom.
The empirical formula for the nuclear radius is,
Here, A is the mass number, is a constant.
From this formula the radius of the Carbon () nucleus is.
(ii) Nuclear Mass:
If there are Z protons and N neutrons then the assumed mass is,
Where, is the mass of each proton and is mass of each neutron. But,
Real nuclear mass <
Difference of the masses,
real mass = Δm
Δm is called the mass defect.
(iii) Nuclear Density:
Here, nuclear mass = , where A is the mass number and is the mass of the nucleon =
Nuclear volume =
(iv) Nuclear Charge:
The charge of the nucleus is the charge of the proton contained in it. Each proton has a positive charge of
The nuclear charge is Ze, where Z is the atomic number of the nucleus.